Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)
Extensive drug resistant tuberculosis is also known as XDR-TB. One third of the people worldwide is infected with dormant tuberculosis (TB) germs aka Tuberculosis bacteria.
When the tuberculosis bacteria become active, it causes the people to be tuberculosis (TB). Anything which reduces the persons’ immunity system can cause the bacteria becoming active. HIV, older ages, or some medical conditions can cause it. In the tuberculosis treatment, four anti tuberculosis drugs are used. The misusage or mismanagement of these drugs cause multi-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-Tb) to develop. The treatment of MDR-TB takes longer with the use of second-line drugs that are more expensive and have more side effects. The misusage and mismanagement of these second-line drugs cause XDR-TB to develop. These drugs become ineffective if they are misused and mismanaged. The treatment options for XDR-TB are very limited because it is resistant to the first and second line drugs which are used in the tuberculosis treatment. Therefore, it is extremely important to control tuberculosis (TB) properly.
Some Facts about XDR-TB
- XDR-TB is observed when the tuberculosis microbes resist to all of the first and second line anti tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs. It emerges if the MDR-TB is mismanaged. It can also be spread person to person. In 2006, XDR-TB was accepted to be a global threat to public health, HIV prevalence countries were considered to be under the highest risk.
- MDR-TB, which is a form of tuberculosis (TB) resistant to the standard tuberculosis drugs, occurs in 424,000 people each year. The mismanagement of drugs leads to this disease. It can also spread person to person.
- 45 countries have been provided with drugs to treat MDR-TB and the technical assistance for using them correctly by WHO and the Stop TB partnership’s Global Drug Facility.
- 2.15 billion USA dollar is needed over the next two years for MDR-TB & XDR-TB by countries and technical agencies.